Mediators, confounders, colliders – a crash course in causal inference

Although one would think that the basic concepts of statistics should be the same across all sciences, there is an amazing heterogeneity between fields in how statistics is taught and practiced. One example are the validity concepts (e.g. construct validity, internal validity, external validity) that are heavily taught in the social sciences and economics (see…

Advertisement

What’s wrong with null models?

A guest post by Carsten F. Dormann Over the last years, I have been using null models more often than I liked. I had to, when there was no other way to figure out if an ecological pattern was unexpected, or trivial. Inspired by some recent (and also some older) posts, I thought I might throw around…